Public hospital autonomy reforms emerged out of frustration over poor hospital performance, citizen distrust of public care and evidence from other sectors of the benefits of delivery models that incorporate or build on private sector incentives. Hierarchical bureaucracy, limited managerial decision-making authority and nonexistent accountability have resulted in poorly performing hospitals, and driven the search for alternative models of health care delivery.
This paper takes up three major organizational forms of hospital autonomy reforms – autonomization, corporatization, and public-private partnerships – and the underlying components necessary for their successful implementation. International examples of hospital autonomy reforms in both OECD and emerging market countries serve as a foundation for analyzing potential opportunities, as well as pitfalls, of autonomy reforms in different contexts.
The paper concludes with an evaluation of the possible application of public hospital autonomy reforms in India. A brief overview of existing autonomy reforms in non-hospital settings is followed by recommendations for the Indian government on the applicability of specific models to the Indian public health sector.
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